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Куликов: "Головне для журналістів – досвід"

Розмір тексту:   Розділ: Аналітика ТБ. Україна Опублікував: Володимир Мула1 грудня 2015 р., 11:28
Куликов: "Головне для журналістів – досвід"

Андрій Куликов вже восьмий рік працює ведучим програми "Свобода слова" на ICTV. Телевізійну роботу поєднує з радійною: веде щоденне ток-шоу "Громадська хвиля" на Громадському радіо та програму "Пора року" на Радіо Ера. Свого часу працював в українській службі ВВС, ТСН та Новому каналі.

На зустрічі, організованій ГО "Всеукраїнський Інтеграційний Рух "ВІР в Україну"" на кіностудії ім. О.Довженка, Андрій Куликов розповів, як здобувати досвід молодим журналістам, про впливи у "Свободі слова" та проблеми "патріотичної" журналістики.

Головне для журналістів – досвід.

Тільки досвід дасть вам відчуття професії, якою б не була освіта. Ідеальний приклад студентської практики я побачив в Дублінському технологічному інституті, де видається газета Liberty. Школа журналістики знаходить в одноіменному районі і студенти пишуть про його життя. Газета отримує рекламу і розповсюджується серед місцевих жителів.

Крім того, студенти мають цікавий розподіл обов'язків. Встигають спробувати себе на всіх посадах в газеті. Тому коли починають працювати, не потребують пояснень, хто, від кого і чому залежить.

Я прихильник журналістського навчання.

Не обов'язково в межах журналістської освіти. Воно може полягати в роботі на якійсь найнижчій посаді в редакції, яка часом буває найкориснішою. Я починав із роботи репортером із загальних завдань. Це найкращий спосіб здобути журналістський досвід, відточити майстерність, навчитися збирати факти, узагальнювати їх і подавати. Сьогодні працюєш на художній виставці, завтра на спортивному змаганні, післязавтра на фермі. Це дало мені відчуття справжнього життя, бо зазвичай ми замкнені в певному соціальному полі зі схожим людьми.

Журналіст не має бути експертом в якісь галузі.

Журналіст повинен бути експертом в журналістиці. У юриста спеціальність – знати закони і вміти їх застосовувати або роз'яснювати іншим. Наше завдання знати закони і правила журналістики і вміти їх застосовувати. Спеціалізація може настати потім, коли ви вже навчилися збирати матеріал, інтерв'ювати людей. Я проти ранньої спеціалізації.

Журналіст повинен все піддавати сумніву.

У будь-якому інтерв'ю ставити на одне запитання більше, а в розслідуванні йти на крок далі, аніж необхідно.

У "Свободі слова" важливо усвідомити своє місце у механізмі програми.

У форматній телевізійній програмі людина, яку найлегше замінити, – це ведучий."Свобода слова" – один з таких прикладів. Савіку Шустеру підготували заміну за два місяці.

Небезпечно, коли свобода стає професією.

Так проявилася ідеологія Шустера в одній з реклам "Свободи слова". Коли він сказав "Свобода – моя професія". Але свобода – це усвідомлена необхідність людини. Імпортовані ведучі не приносять користі українському телебаченню. У нас стільки людських ресурсів, що немає потреби в імпортних замінниках.

Не можу собі дозволити не брати до уваги інтереси роботодавця.

Віктор Пінчук впливає на програму "Свобода слова" майже завжди непрямо. За вісім років роботи у нас було три зустрічі, де ми проговорювали принципи і умови співпраці. Було три або чотири нетривалі зустрічі, коли він висловлював своє ставлення до того, що я роблю. Звичайно, я враховую це в подальшій роботі, тому ніколи не скажу, що є абсолютно незалежним. Питання в тому, щоб встановити модус взаємодії з такими людьми. Наприклад, коли була виборча кампанія, де змагались Тимошенко і Янукович, після програми з Тимошенко, на якомусь заході я зустрів Пінчука. Він сказав: "Нехай програма з Януковичем вийде так само непогано". Можна трактувати це як побажання рівних умов, а можна інакше. Я сприймаю такий рівень взаємовідносин, бо думаю, що Пінчук таки був зацікавлений у рівному ставленні.

Компроміси.

Коли Пінчук наймав мене на роботу, казав, що через українську мову аудиторія втече. Пропонував вести програму російською. Я подякував за знайомство і відмовився. Вони подумали і зрештою погодилась на українську. Зараз я ініціюю розмову українською, але якщо співрозмовник відповідає російською, то майже завжди теж переходжу. Мені непросто було з цим змиритися, але я прийняв цю умову, тому що поступки були з обох сторін.

Через замовчування руйнується віра і довіра.

Мене дуже стурбувала дискусія, яка частково розпочалась під час Майдану і продовжилась пізніше: наскільки припустимо брехати або заплющувати очі на наші недоліки заради майбутньої перемоги. Сама постановка цього питання свідчить про слабкість української журналістики. Що раніше ми скажемо собі неприємну правду, то швидше виправимо помилки. А коли ми робимо вигляд, що їх не існує – психологічна травма, якої зазнає суспільство буде набагато більша. Так було з Іловайськом.

Патріотизм журналіста полягає у неухильному дотриманні основних стандартів.

Бо якщо журналіст починає брехати, змінює психологічну атмосферу, думає, що приносить користь, насправді він завдає шкоди своїй країні і суспільству.

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